Table Of Interest
- 1 8 Top Possible Factors That Leads To Runway Incursion
- 1.1 8 Top Possible Factors That Leads To Runway Incursion
- 1.2 The First Four Types of Runway Incursions Recorded By FAA
- 1.2.1 1. Operational Errors
- 1.2.2 2. Operational Deviations
- 1.2.3 3. Pilot Deviations
- 1.2.4 4. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations
- 1.2.5 5. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
- 1.2.6 6. COMMUNICATION FAILURES
- 1.2.7 7. PILOT FACTORS:
- 1.2.8 8. AERODROME DESIGN
- 1.2.9 3 Best Practices That Mitigate/Reduce Runway Incursion
- 1.2.10 PLANNING OF TAXI OPERATIONS
- 1.2.11 FAMILIAR OF AERODROME
- 1.2.12 TAXI PROCEDURES
- 1.2.13 See Other Articles Others Are Reading
Today, you and I will quickly talk about the topic which I have titled “8 Top Possible Factors That Leads To Runway Incursion”.
This has because very important as the day goes by as a result of the very many aviation fans out there who have been searching online for several topics relating to the above subject.
However, we have done a very comprehensive research and we are therefore providing you with information regarding the subject.
According to Wikipedia, A runway incursion is an incident where an unauthorized aircraft, vehicle or person is on a runway. This adversely affects runway safety, as it creates the risk that an airplane taking off or landing will collide with the object. It is defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) on April 27, 2006, as:
Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle, or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft.
The reasons that leads to all the above is what we shall take a look at today and hopefully by the time we are done, we must have successfully satisfied the curiosity of those who might have been searching for queries such as [runway incursion prevention, runway incursion accidents, runway incursion statistics, runway incursion video, runway incursion uncontrolled airport, taxiway incursion, runway incursion avoidance powerpoint, runway incursion technology,8 Top Possible Factors That Leads To Runway Incursion].
Without wasting much of your precious time, lets get to the topic “8 Top Possible Factors That Leads To Runway Incursion”, right away.
8 Top Possible Factors That Leads To Runway Incursion
However, before we treat the Factors that leads to Runway Incursions over the years, Let’s throw some light to what Runway Incursions really means.
Runway Incursions simply means the existence or the presence of an unauthorized object, be it a person or a vehicle on the runway.
This endangers the safety of an airplane, planning to take off or land on that runway.
However, We went Further providing possible factors/practices that can moderate or mitigate Runway Incursions
According to Fisher in 2002, He said: “While traffic volume, capacity-enhancing procedures, and aerodrome layout may increase the potential for a runway incursion, human error is the mechanism that translates this potential into an actual occurrence.”
Over the Years, The FAA has recorded four types of runway incursions, Which all are based on human error and loss of appropriate separation between aircraft and/or a vehicle.
1. Operational Errors
This is when an air traffic controller inappropriately clears an aircraft or vehicle into a situation that results in a collision hazard
2. Operational Deviations
This simply occurs when a pilot moves an aircraft into a position with air traffic control approval, at a wrong time or place (different runway) this is one of the Factors That Leads To Runway Incursion
3. Pilot Deviations
This occurs when a pilot moves an aircraft into a position, without air traffic control approval, that leads to a loss of separation
Between the years 1994 to 2001, Pilot Deviation was the main cause of runway incursions in every year except 1994. The FAA has further broken down the data to show that general aviation pilots were most likely to be involved in a runway incursion. In 2000, general aviation pilots committed 76 percent of the pilot deviations.
4. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations
This particular deviation occurs where a vehicle or individual enters a runway without air traffic control approval that leads to a collision hazard.
Aside from the Factors of Runway Incursions recorded by the FAA, There other factors that could lead to a serious ground incident includes:
5. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
-Memory lapses of controllers
-Communication errors between controller and pilots
-Loss of situational awareness of the controllers
-Not visual with traffic from the tower, poor design
– Reduced reaction time due to trainee undergoing training
-The separation between aircraft being miscalculated
6. COMMUNICATION FAILURES
-Usage on non-standard RT phraseology
-Read back/hear back failures
-Call sign confusion from similar call signs
-Long and complex instructions
7. PILOT FACTORS:
The Loss of situational awareness
Inadequate support from the non-flying pilot (Pilot Monitoring)
time pressure which leads to “rushed” behavior
Noncompliance of instructions issued by ATC
Inadequate vigilance (complacency) in airports
Lack of crosschecking
8. AERODROME DESIGN
Inadequate and complex design
Inadequate signage, marking and lighting systems
Airport layouts that are complex
A spacing between runways which are insufficient
3 Best Practices That Mitigate/Reduce Runway Incursion
PLANNING OF TAXI OPERATIONS
Prioritization of workload – reducing workload and increasing attention during briefings will improve situational awareness
Pll non critical operations to be completed before push-back
One pilot always monitors the progress of the taxiing against the aerodrome chart
FAMILIAR OF AERODROME
Charts should be studied ahead of time and taxi routes reviewed with a detailed briefing of the taxi routes
Latest NOTAMS reviewed with attention to closures of taxiways and runways
When given an unexpected route or rerouted – take the time needed for reorientation of the new route
Pay attention to the location of hot spots
Usage of standard RT phraseology
Receive and confirm clearances before crossing active runways, reading back all runways crossing/ hold short clearances clearly
Never crossing red stop bars
Priority taxiing leaving the checklist for the appropriate time to minimise distractions
Have a clear understanding of the different ICAO phraseologies
Check for traffic before entering a runway
Ensure all pilots are aware of the ATC instruction given
Write down the taxi instruction and compare it with the aerodrome chart
Adopt a sterile flight deck
Progressively follow the aircraft’s position on the aerodrome chart
Look for visual aids and keep track of aircraft location against the aerodrome chart
Read back of clearances in its entirety to minimize ambiguity
Avoid going heads down during the taxiing phases – both pilots actively following the taxiing route
Listen out for other traffic
If uncertain STOP the aircraft and clarify with ATC
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